Yule and Burnell also compiled a few dozen excerpts of historical descriptions of sati, the first being of Ceteus (or Keteus) mentioned above in 317 BC, and then a few before the 9th century AD, where the widow of a king had the choice to burn with him or abstain.Most of the compiled list on sati, by Yule and Burnell, date from 1200 AD through the 1870s AD.The woman found to have been held highest in the husband's favour while he lived had her throat slit on his grave, the surviving wives reputedly regarding it as a great shame to have to live on. There was thus less scope for the social reformer." Chinese sociology studies that followed suggest that the practice was historically more widespread, far removed from India (near the Korean peninsula), and found among the Manchu people of China where a widow would ritually commit suicide after her husband died (Chinese: xunsi, congxun).The practice of self-immolation and other forms of public suicide by widows were observed, for example, in Fukien province of southeast China, in some cases in duress after a rape attempt and in other cases voluntarily without duress.Thich Nu Thanh Quang, a Buddhist nun publicly burnt herself to death in front of Diệu Đế Pagoda in central Vietnam, as a mark of protest against the Vietnam War.A well-known case is that of the 10th-century AD ship burial of the Rus' described by Ibn Fadlan.So all the old material will be left here for archival purposes, with comments turned off.while evidence of practice by widows of kings only appears beginning between the 5th and 9th centuries CE.
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Sati appears in Hindi and Sanskrit texts, where it is synonymous with "good wife"; Sati designates therefore originally the woman, rather than the rite; the rite itself having technical names such as sahagamana ("going with") or sahamarana ("dying with").In 317 BCE Eumenes's cosmopolitan army defeated that of Antigonus in the Battle of Paraitakene.Among the fallen was one Ceteus, the commander of Eumenes's Indian soldiers.The Chinese Buddhist asceticism practices, states James Benn, were not an adaptation or import of Indian ascetic practices, but an invention of Chinese Buddhists, based on their unique interpretations of Buddhists texts.
In modern times, Buddhist nuns have used self-immolation as a form of protest.
Hieronymus' explanation of the origin of sati appears to be his own composite, created from a variety of Indian traditions and practices to form a moral lesson upholding traditional Greek values.