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I published several excerpts (in French) of his work in progress on Les Fleurs website.This paper presents the results of Nagi Zeidans research. Mathilde Tagger, an expert in the publication of Jewish databases, and also with Isaac Salmassi and Cecil Dana both of whom have extensive personal knowledge of the Lebanese Diaspora, and are familiar with Hebrew and Arabic scripts and languages.century, the area known as Balad El Cham extended from Turkey to the Gulf of Akaba.Around 1834, with the first construction of roads following the invasion of Ibrahim Pashas armies of Akko, namely the roads from Beirut to Damascus, from Damascus to Jerusalem and from Jerusalem to Jaffa, the Ottoman Empire created three main provinces (wilayats): Mount Lebanon with the Mediterranean Coast from Akko to Turkey (with Beirut as capital), Syria from Aleppo to the Red Sea on the west side of the Jordan river (capital Damascus) and Palestine (capital Jerusalem).Lebanon was originally a part of an area called Phoenicia in the Bible and in older sources.Its capital was Tyr that was linked to a small university town the Romans called Beryte or Beritus.During the Lebanese civil war, their total number dropped to 40; and by 1985 none was left.Only the Jewish cemetery now remains as a trace of their passage.



After the beginning of the French mandate following the fall of the Ottoman Empire, several bomb explosions frightened the Jewish population; and by the end of World War II, only a few Jewish families remained in Saida.The 20 families of Hasbaya left the town after riots in 1860.Ramiche had only one remaining family - the Grunbergs who owned a cheese factory there until 1911.At the time of the Ottoman Census of 1519, 36 Jews lived in the town, the increase due most probably to the immigration of Sephardim from Spain.

The first Franco family came from Italy in about 1700Riots in the mountains of Lebanon (1860) caused many Jews to move to Saida; but the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 started a massive emigration of Jews to Egypt from all the Ottoman Empire.

In 1807 they built a synagogue named Mesguad Ladek (demolished in 1930).